Self Efficacy Perawat di Tengah Pandemi Covid-19

  • Christianto Nugroho Sekolah Tinggi ilmu kesehatan pamenang
  • Ikhwan Kosasih



Covid-19 is causing a global health crisis with the number of people being infected and dying every day. Seeing the number of cases and symptoms of Covid-19 patients illustrates that the number of patients and the risks that nurses must face, this affects the psychology of nurses in general and in particular affects the self-efficacy of nurses. The purpose of this study was to determine the self-efficacy of nurses amid the Covid-19 pandemic at the Kediri District Hospital. This research is a descriptive-analytic study with a quantitative approach at Pare Hospital in April– September 2021. The study population was all nurses at Pare Hospital with a total sample of 181 people using simple random sampling. Collecting data using self-efficacy questionnaire and univariate analysis. The results showed that 8(4.4%) respondents had low self-efficacy, 146(80.7%) moderate respondents, and 27(14.9%) good respondents. The conclusion of nurses' self-efficacy is mostly in the moderate category, so it needs support from all parties including hospital management to provide emotional support for existing health workers, so nurses will feel confident that they can treat and accompany Covid-19 patients properly and correctly.


Keywords : Self Efficacy, Nurse, Covid-19.



[1]. El-Hage, W., Hingray, C., Lemogne, C., Yrondi, A., Brunault, P., Bienvenu, T., et al. Health Professionals Facing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Pandemic: What are the mental health risks?. Encephale. 2020 Jun;46(3S):S73–80. 10.1016/J.Encep.2020.04.008.
[2]. Rosyanti, L., Hadi, I. Dampak Psikologis dalam Memberikan Perawatan dan Layanan Kesehatan Pasien Covid-19 pada Tenaga Profesional Kesehatan. Heal Inf J Penelit. 2020;12(1):107–30. 10.36990/Hijp.Vi.191.
[3]. Xiong, H., Yi, S., Lin, Y. The Psychological Status and Self-Efficacy of Nurses During Covid-19 Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Inq (United States). 2020;57(201).
[4]. Rejo, Arradini, D., Darmayanti, A.T., Widiyanto, A., Atmojo, J.T. Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Depresi pada Tenaga Kesehatan saat Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Ilmu Keperawatan Jiwa [Internet]. 2020;3(4):495–502.
[5]. Valdez, C.D., Nichols, T.W. Motivating Healthcare Workers to Work during A Crisis: A Literature Review. 2013;14(4):43–51.
[6]. Nugroho, C. Analisis Self Efficacy Perawat Berdasarkan Data Demografi di Tengah Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Ilmiah Pamenang [Internet]. 2021;3(2):43–9.
[7]. Satgas Nasional. Data Sebaran Covid-19. Covid-19, 2020. Https://Covid19.Go.Id/ (Accessed Oct. 23, 2020).
[8]. Satgas Jatim. Peta Sebaran Covid-19 Jawa Timur. Infojatim.Covid-19, 2020. Http://Infocovid19.Jatimprov.Go.Id/ (Accessed Oct. 23, 2020).
[9]. Zhong, N., Liu, Z. Clinical Characteristics of 2019 Coronavirus Pneumonia,” 2020;(518061).
[10]. Zu, Z.Y., Di Jiang, M., Xu, P.P., Chen, W., Ni, Q.Q., Lu, G.M., et al. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perspective from China. Radiology [Internet]. 2020;296(2):E15–25.
[11]. Chan, J.F.W., Yuan, S., Kok, K.H., To, K.K.W., Chu, H., Yang, J., et al. A Familial Cluster of Pneumonia Associated with the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Indicating Person-to-Person Transmission: A Study of A Family Cluster. Lancet [Internet]. 2020;395(10223):514–23. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9.
[12]. Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., et al. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 99 Cases of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Descriptive Study. Lancet [Internet]. 2020;395(10223):507–13. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.
[13]. Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., et al. Clinical Features of Patients Infected with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet [Internet]. 2020;395(10223):497–506. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
[14]. Nugroho, S.C. Analisis Self Efficacy Peserta Pelatihan Penanganan Analyze the Self-Efficacy of Training Participants in Emergency. J. Ilm. Pamenang. 2020;2(2): 42–47.
[15]. Bandura A. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control [Internet]. Worth Publishers; 1997.
[16]. Schwarzer, R., Bäßler, J., Kwiatek, P., Schröder, K., Zhang, J.X. The Assessment of Optimistic Self-Beliefs: Comparison of the German, Spanish, and Chinese Versions of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Appl Psychol. 1997;46(1):69–88. Https://Doi.Org/10.1111/J.1464-0597.1997.Tb01096.X.
[17]. Hsieh, Y.H., Wang, H.H., Ma, S.C. The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy in the Relationship Between Workplace Bullying, Mental Health and An Intention to Leave among Nurses in Taiwan. Int J Occup Med Environ Health [Internet]. 2019;32(2):245–54. https://
[18]. Ho, S.M.Y., Kwong-Lo, R.S.Y., Mak, C.W.Y., Wong, J.S. Fear of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) among Health Care Workers. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005 Apr;73(2):344–9. Https://Doi.Org/10.1037/0022-006x.73.2.344.
[19]. Lee J, Kang SJ. Factors Influencing Nurses’ Intention to Care for Patients with Emerging Infectious Diseases: Application of the Theory Of Planned Behavior. Nurs Health Sci. 2020 Mar;22(1):82–90. Https://Doi.Org/10.1111/Nhs.12652.
[20]. Wijaya, R. D., Permatasari, H., Fitriyani, P. Nurse ’ Psychological Experiences during the Covid -19 Pandemic at DKI Jakarta General Hospital Pengalaman Psikologi Perawat pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19 di Rumah Sakit Umum DKI Jakarta. 2022;2(1):71–80.
[21]. Roudini, J., Khankeh, H.R., Witruk, E., Ebadi, A., Reschke, K., Stück, M. Community Mental Health Preparedness In Disasters: A Qualitative Content Analysis In An Iranian Context Tt -, Hdqir, 2017 Jul;2(4):165–78. Https://Doi.Org/ 10.29252/Nrip.Hdq.2.4.165.
[22]. Dharra, S., Kumar, R. Promoting Mental Health of Nurses During the Coronavirus Pandemic: Will the Rapid Deployment of Nurses' Training Programs During COVID-19 Improve Self-Efficacy and Reduce Anxiety? Cureus, 2021;15(3). Https://Doi.Org/ 10.7759/Cureus.15213.
[23].Songka, K., Ides, S.A. The Relationship between Stress Levels and the Performance of Nurses Caring for Covid-19 Patients at Private Hospital Central Jakarta. 2022;5(2):56–62.
[24]. Zimmerman BJ. Self-efficacy and educational development. Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. 2010;202–31.
[25]. Vahia, I.V., Blazer, D.G., Smith, G.S., Karp, J.F., Steffens, D.C., Forester, B.P., et al. COVID-19, Mental Health and Aging: A Need for New Knowledge to Bridge Science and Service. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry [Internet]. 2020;28(7):695–7. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Jagp.2020.03.007.
[26]. Greenberg, N., Docherty, M., Gnanapragasam, S., Wessely, S. Managing Mental Health Challenges Faced by Healthcare Workers during Covid-19 Pandemic. BMJ [Internet]. 2020 Mar 26;368:m1211. Https://Doi.Org/10.1136/Bmj.M1211.
[27]. Astuti, J.T., Suyanto, S. Implikasi Manajemen Keperawatan dalam Penanganan Pasien Corona Virus Disease 19 (Covid-19): Literatur Review. Medica Hosp J Clin Med. 2020;7(1A):288–97. Https://Doi.Org/ 10.36408/Mhjcm.V7i1a.465.
[28]. A. Karim, A., Purba, H.P. Pengaruh Kecerdasan Emosional terhadap Burnout pada Perawat dengan Coronavirus Anxiety sebagai Variabel Mediator. Buletin Riset Psikologi dan Kesehatan Mental D. Psikologi, F. Psikologi, U. Airlangga. 2021;1(1):448–59.
[29]. Fauziah, L., Prayitno, H. Hubungan Stres dengan Mekanisme Koping Perawat ICU dalam Penanganan COVID-19 di Rumah Sakit. J Ilmu Kesehat [Internet]. 2021; 12(1):375–81. Https://Doi.Org/10.35966/Ilkes.V12i1.205.
[30]. Nugroho, C., Suryono, S., Wiseno, B. Homecare Interest for Post Hospitalizing Patient in Pare Region. Str J Ilm Kesehat. 2020;9(2):1101–5. Https://Doi.Org/10.30994/Sjik.V9i2.450.
[31]. Angin, E.P., Zulfendri, Nasution, S.S. Beban Kerja dan Lingkungan dengan Stres Kerja Perawat di Rawat Inap RSJ. Prof. M. Ildrem Sumatera Utara. J Ilmu Kesehat [Internet]. 2021;12(1):413–21. . Https://Doi.Org/10.35966/Ilkes.V12i1.209.
[32]. Yin, X., Zeng, L. A Study on The Psychological Needs of Nurses Caring for Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 from the Perspective of the Existence, Relatedness, and Growth Theory. Int J Nurs Sci [Internet]. 2020;7(2):157–60.
[33]. Kristiana, I.F. It's Ok Not To Be Ok : Pengalaman Psikologis pada Perawat yang Menangani Pasien Covid-19. Insight Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Psikologi. 2022;18(1):65–81. Https://Doi.Org/10.32528/Ins.V.
[34]. Xiong, H., Yi, S., Lin, Y. The Psychological Status and Self-Efficacy of Nurses during Covid-19 Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Survey,” Inq. J. Heal. Care Organ. Provision, Financ., 2020 Jan;57: 0046958020957114. Https://Doi.Org/ 10.1177/0046958020957114.
[35]. Kupcewicz, E., Mikla, M., Áková, H.K.C., Grochans, E. Self-Efficacy and Fatigue Perceived by Nursing Students in Poland , Spain and Slovakia during the Covid-19 Pandemic. 2022;3771–86.
How to Cite
NUGROHO, Christianto; KOSASIH, Ikhwan. Self Efficacy Perawat di Tengah Pandemi Covid-19. JURNAL ILKES (Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan), [S.l.], v. 13, n. 1, p. 10-21, june 2022. ISSN 2549-9408. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 june 2022. doi: